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ProGibb® T&O: Use of Gibberellic Acid in Ornamentals, Cut Flower, and Turf

Gibberellins

Gibberellins (or gibberellic acids; GAs) are a family of compounds based on the ent-gibberellane molecular structure that possess plant growth regulating activity. GAs are known to be regulators of many phases of higher plant development, including seed germination, stem growth, induction of flowering, pollen development and fruit growth. At present, there are 136 GAs, designated GA1 through GA136 that have been identified from 128 different species of vascular plants, and also from 7 bacteria and 7 fungi.

GAs were first isolated and identified in Japan in 1926, as a metabolic by-product of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The presence of GAs in this fungus leads to the extensive growth of infected rice plants. Thus, from the time of their discovery GAs were known to be effective in promoting stem elongation. In nature, GAs are synthesized in rapidly growing regions of the plants, i.e., young tissues of the shoot and developing seed.

For commercial use, GAs are produced in large industrial scale through fermentation. The most commercially available gibberellin is GA3. The beginning of commercial production of GA3 dates back to the 1950s when research on the use of plant growth regulators was booming. The most studied effect of gibberellins at that time was growth promotion and stem elongation (Fig. 1).  Since then, several other effects of GAs have been identified and commercialized.

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Fig. 1.
Repeat applications of gibberellic acid cause stem elongation in brassica plants; left plant treated with GA3 and plant on the right was untreated (photo ca. 1957, Michigan State Univ.)

Physiologically, a major function of gibberellins in higher plants can be generalized as stimulating organ growth through enhancement of cell elongation and, in some cases, cell division. In addition, gibberellins promote certain developmental switches, such as between seed dormancy and germination, juvenile and adult growth phases, and vegetative and reproductive development. In this last case, gibberellins may promote the vegetative or reproductive state, depending on species.

ProGibb T&O

ProGibb T&O is a liquid plant growth regulator with 4% GA3 as active ingredient. ProGibb T&O can be used to manage important plant growth developmental processes in both organic and traditional greenhouse and nursery production. ProGibb T&O is registered for use in every state of the US. The product is OMRI-listed and approved by the USDA for use in organic production. ProGibb T&O is registered for use in several ornamentals, cut flowers and turf. The various ornamental uses, crops, use rates and application timings are summarized in Table 1 below. The most important effect of GA3 in these crops is the increase of flowering. In most cases, plants require cold (dormancy) or use changes in day-length (photoperiod) as cues for the initiation of flowering. Gibberellins have been shown to act as secondary messengers in these processes and external application of GA3 can substitute these environmental stimuli.

Table 1. Registered Uses of ProGibb T&O in Ornamental Crops

Use objective Crop/Variety Rate (ppm a.i.) Application timing
Break flower dormancy (as a partial replacement of cold treatment) Azalea 250-500 Applications begin after plants have received 3-4 weeks of chilling. For three consecutive weeks apply a single foliar application.
Inhibit flower bud initiation during vegetative growth Azalea 100-750 Apply a single foliar application beginning 2-3 weeks after each pinch. Continue applications on a weekly basis for 1-2 weeks after the first application.
Increase flower number per rhizome/tuber Calla lily 500 Soak rhizome/tuber for 10 min prior to planting.
Substitute chilling requirements and increase bloom size Camellia 2% solution Remove the vegetative budimmediately adjacent to or below the floral bud. Place a single drop of solution to the vegetative bud scar.
Increase flower number and flower size Geranium 1-5 Apply a single foliar application when inflorescence first begins to show color.
Flowering advancement Geranium 5-15 Apply a single foliar application when first bud set is noted.
Elongate peduncle Pompom Chrysanthemum 25-60 Apply a single foliar application 9-12 weeks prior to expected date of sale.
Accelerate bloom and increase the number of flowers per plant Spathiphyllum 150-250 Apply a single foliar application to the flower buds 4-5 weeks after initiation of short days.

ProGibb T&O is also registered for use in cut flowers (Table 2). The main purpose of application is the promotion of stem elongation and increase in the number of flowering stems. These characteristics are of high ornamental and economic value of cut flowers. The active ingredient, GA3, increases stem elongation through the elongation/enlargement of plant cells.

Table 2. Registered Uses of ProGibb T&O in Cut Flowers

Use objective Crop/Variety Rate (ppm a.i.) Application timing
Promote stem elongation and break dormancy Aster 50-100 Make 1-3 applications during the early vegetative period. Apply when plants are 2-6 inch tall. Keep applications 2-3 weeks apart.
Accelerate plant growth, increase number of flowering stems, increase flower number and uniformity Baby’s Breath (Gypsophila) 150-500 Apply 3-4 applications at 4 weeks of growth (after pinching). Keep applications 2 weeks apart.
Promote plant growth and stem elongation Column Stock (Matthiola), Delphinium, Larkspur, Queen Anne’s Lace (Ammi), Statice, Sweet William (Dianthus) 50-100 Apply as a foliar spray when plants are 4-8 inch tall. Keep applications 2-3 weeks apart.

Besides the above-listed specific ornamental uses, ProGibb T&O can be used in bedding plants, annual and perennial potted crops (e.g., tree form azalea, flowering chrysanthemum, poinsettia), field grown ornamentals and bulb crops to promote plant growth. Applying ProGibb T&O as a single foliar spray at 1-25 ppm rate has the potential to dramatically promote plant growth of most dicot and some monocot plants. Additionally, ProGibb T&O can be utilized to overcome over-applications of growth-inhibiting plant growth regulators.

ProGibb T&O has been registered for turfgrass use. Foliar applications of ProGibb T&O have been shown to initiate or maintain growth and/or prevent color change during periods of cold stress on Bermudagrass grown in golf courses, parks and turf farms (Table 3).

Table 3. Registered Uses of ProGibb T&O in Turfgrass

Use objective Crop/Variety Rate (grams per acre) Application conditions
Initiate or maintain growth and prevent color change during periods of cold stress and light frosts Bermudagrass (Tifdwarf, Tifgreen and other cultivars) 10-25 Apply 10 grams a.i./acre weekly or 25 g a.i./acre biweekly in 25-100 gallons of water /acre.
Maintain or enhance regrowth of golf course bermudagrass during summer months Bermudagrass Tifdwarf, Tifgreen) 1-3 Apply 1-3 grams a.i./acre weekly in 25-100 gallons of water /acre.


General Use Recommendations

  1. ProGibb T&O is a potent plant growth regulator. First, evaluate product efficacy on a small number of plants before application of the product on a large scale production area.
  2. Plants are highly responsive to gibberellic acid applications and sensitive to the rates, timings and volumes of application. Care must be used in measuring, diluting and applying ProGibb T&O. Deviations in rates, timings or water volumes from the label directions will result in undesirable effects.
  3. If desired plant results are not achieved, a reapplication or an increase in rate is warranted.
  4. For optimum effectiveness, thorough spray coverage must be achieved; only plant parts covered with spray solution will be affected. Plant parts not directly covered with ProGibb T&O will not respond to the application.
  5. An effective dose of ProGibb T&O is strongly dependent on application volume. Variation in plant response is possible if a given rate is applied at different spray volumes. Uniformity of spray solution is equally important.
  6. When applying ProGibb T&O foliarly, spray plants to run-off. The actual spray application rate will vary depending on plant size and spacing den­sity.
  7. ProGibb T&O is most ef­ficacious when applied in slow drying conditions, i.e., during morning or late afternoon hours. Slow drying conditions provide longer direct contact of the spray solution with the plant surface resulting in better absorption of the product and thus greater efficacy.

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Have You Considered Using Mycorrhizae?

Why Mycorrhizae, Why Now?

Mycorrhizae are not new, in fact they have been around for hundreds of millions of years.  But the knowledge of how a horticultural professional can successfully use mycorrhizae has been emerging more and more in recent years. When plants started to associate with mycorrhizal fungi in nature, the symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationship formed to help plants to survive under stressful conditions.  Today, growers need to consider using mycorrhizae to be more competitive in today’s ever-changing marketplace.

Every grower is unique, depending on their production capabilities, customer base, etc.  The benefits of using mycorrhizae in your production system and as an active ingredient in your finished product are also unique. To keep it simple, mycorrhizae expand a plant’s root mass. And by expanding a plant’s root mass, the mycorrhizal fungi are able to supply inorganic nutrients and water movement to the plant, and in return the plant ships surplus sugars back to the mycorrhizae.

Benefits that Matter to the Grower

Now how does that benefit a grower that produces plants in an ideal environment where nutrients and moisture are never lacking? Mycorrhizae allow your plants to be more competitive in the sequestering of the nutrients and water that you are providing to your plants. Even when water and nutrients are not deficient, mycorrhizae still expand the root masses of the plants and provide benefits.

A plant without mycorrhizae typically uses a small portion of the nutrients that are applied by the grower.  Mycorrhizae greatly increase the percentage of nutrients absorbed by the plant. The fungus does this in two ways. First they extend their mycelium network beyond the normal root zone and secondly, they extract more nutrients within the root zone because the mycelium is finer than plant roots or root hairs thus improving the overall nutrient uptake due to the increased surface-absorptive area. They also have the ability to transform nutrients into forms that plants can more readily absorb. For example, they can secrete organic acids that dissolve or chelate many ions, or release them from minerals and converting these nutrients into available forms that the plants can use. This is especially important in root-constrained situations i.e., in containerized plants, where roots are limited to a small volume and there is no possibility for the roots to explore larger soil volumes. Additionally, mycorrhizae can store nutrients when they are in excess, and supply them to the plant later when they are needed.

Since commercial growers began utilizing mycorrhizae in the 1990’s, we have learned a lot about plant nutrition. Where the norm used to be using a 20-20-20 fertilizer, to now when growers use a 20-10-20 fertilizer, or better yet a 15-5-15 or 15-2-15 fertilizer and grow in soil-less media to produce the same crop. With these changes, nitrogen levels have dropped from historic levels of 200-400 ppm N to 100-150 ppm N by comparison. As growers have reduced their nitrogen levels, their phosphorus levels have dropped, as well.  Historically, these higher levels of water-soluble nitrogen and phosphorus have suppressed mycorrhizal activity because there was no mutual need of the host plant and fungus to form a symbiotic relationship.

All of these nutritional changes have created plants with stronger/harder shoot and root growth, a greater resistance to plant disease and reduced fertilizer costs for the grower. The advent and increased use of controlled release fertilizers and organic fertilizers have also changed the landscape. All of these changes have opened the door for the use of mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizae allow plants to do more with less.  Growers can reduce their fertilizer usage on a finished crop by 25-40% and still deliver the plant quality desired by retailers. The reduction in fertilizer and the greater utilization of the fertilizer by the plant also reduce nitrogen and phosphorus run off. What is amazing is that growers that do not reduce their fertilizer usage will still benefit from the use of mycorrhizae, because their plants will use more of what is applied and less will go to waste through the bottom of the pot. The expanded root mass derived from the use of mycorrhizae also benefits the plant by allowing it to access more of the moisture applied to the plant. This can also benefit the grower when they are struggling to get caught up with their watering due to warmer weather during production.

Benefits to Your Customer, the Retailer or Landscaper

Once your plants are loaded on a truck and out of your care, they typically start to decline in quality due to the lack of nutrition and moisture. Growers that grow with mycorrhizae benefit in that once the plant is treated with mycorrhizae everyone else further down the value chain benefits from their decision. First the plant comes out of the truck looking better, because the plant could better handle stress during shipment. Second, nutrients will be available to the plant longer, as the plant accesses the last feeding, and as the nutritional stores in the mycorrhizae are made available to the plant. Third, water will be extracted by the mycelium network of the mycorrhizae combined with the water reserves stored in the same network; treated plants can typically resist wilt 24-48 hours longer than untreated plants. Fourth, plants that look better sell quicker, they have greater shelf appeal. Plants grown with mycorrhizae look better longer, thus they have a longer shelf life and there is less dump or less plants make it to the mark-down bench. And fifth, home gardeners and landscapers benefit from getting a plant that is better prepared to survive transplant shock. Once a treated plant is planted in the landscape, they immediately begin to expand their root mass. And as they expand their root mass the plant is better able to access nutrients and water and ultimately survive the transition. Long term the plant is better able to thrive, producing the desired flowers and fruits, thus creating a happy customer that returns to buy more from the grower or garden center.

Keys to Success

  • A mycorrhizae treatment does not have an immediate impact. Typically mycorrhizae need eight weeks on average to start to demonstrate visual benefits to the grower. Benefits to the plant will begin within a few weeks of treatment, but the difference will be less noticeable. Early colonization (during propagation or when the plugs arrive) is most cost-effective, as young plants require less inoculum, produce a faster response, and the eight-week clock has started to count down. This is especially important for short term crops grown in greenhouses. For landscapers, it is never too late to top-dress or incorporate the mycorrhizae to an untreated plant. Mycorrhizae can be added at planting or to an established landscape.
  • Mycorrhizal propagules need to be applied in close proximity to actively growing root tips, as the root exudates trigger the germination of the dormant propagules, and kick off the symbiotic colonization of the root system. MycoApply® can be applied as a seed treatment, applied to unrooted cuttings, incorporated into growing media, or even used as a drench or plug tray dip. The key is to mix the propagules thoroughly in the soil or to apply sufficient water volume to move them into the future root zone of the plant.
  • Mycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne fungi that may be susceptible to certain fungicide products. More information on this topic is on the Mycorrhizal Applications website. A website document titled “Effects of Fungicides on Mycorrhizal Fungi” gives an overview of our present knowledge of the compatibility of mycorrhizal fungi and fungicides. Many common fungicides are compatible with mycorrhizal inoculation and development. The inoculation stage is the most susceptible period. The longer the wait to apply any fungicide after mycorrhizal fungi inoculation, the better for the mycorrhizal development. We suggest waiting at least two weeks to avoid slowing the mycorrhizal inoculation. Most foliar applied fungicides (except systemics, such as Strike®) have little effect on the mycorrhizal fungi.
  • Diversity matters when it comes to mycorrhizal fungi. Having multiple species is critical to achieve maximum efficacy of the mycorrhizae. There are over three hundred known species of endo mycorrhizal fungi in the world. In the soul microbiome, the mycorrhizal fungal community changes over time with plant phenology, season, microclimate and soil conditions. Furthermore, different species are responsible for different functional benefits to the plant. This is analogous to why you take a multi-vitamin. Depending on the day, you might need more of a particular vitamin contained within the single pill; the same is true with plants and mycorrhizae, often the more species in the mix, the better. Independent research has shown products containing multiple mycorrhizal species provide more consistent benefits to the plant and ultimately to the grower. Even if you purchase a growing mix that has a single species of mycorrhizae already included, your plants will still benefit by being treated with a MycoApply® multiple-species offering.
  • Not to complicate things, but it is also important to treat the right plants with the correct mycorrhizae. Almost 85% of all plants are Endomycorrhizal. This includes most greenhouse crops. About 10% of plants are Ectomycorrhizal. This mostly includes conifers and hardwood trees. Orchids and Ericaceae plants have their own unique types of mycorrhizae that are not commercially available in North America. A few horticultural important crops are non-mycorrhizal. They include brassicas, spinach and the Caryophyllaceae family (Carnation, Dianthus, etc.). If you treat a plant with the wrong mycorrhizae or that is not mycorrhizal, you will not harm the plant. Click here for a list of families and genera and their mycorrhizal affiliation.
  • If you plan to run a mycorrhizal trial, you should only have one variable. The treatments should be 1) standard production practices without mycorrhizae versus 2) standard production practices with mycorrhizae. This will allow you to isolate the value that mycorrhizae offer to your business.

If you have any questions about the information contained in this article, please contact Mycorrhizal Applications at 866-476-7800 or email us at inquiries@mycorrhizae.com.

Blair Busenbark

Mycorrhizal Applications – Sales & Commercial Marketing Manager

January 12, 2018

© 2018, Mycorrhizal Applications LLC


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Plants Grown with Mycorrhizae Shine at Retail and in the Landscape

The many benefits that mycorrhizal fungi provide to plants are extremely well documented.  In fact, mycorrhizal fungi have been called the most researched soil organisms in the world, with scholarly journal articles and published trials from countries around the globe numbering in the tens of thousands.  These symbiotic organisms have been relied upon for successful reforestation and restoration projects for decades.  In agriculture, mycorrhizal fungi are partnering with plants in symbiosis to contribute to sustainably feeding our growing global population, even in drought affected areas, salty soils, desertified farmland, etc.

Professional horticulturists, including greenhouse and nursery growers, can also experience the benefits of mycorrhizae in their own growing protocols.  However, these benefits can sometimes be harder to demonstrate in horticultural circumstances, since plants are less likely to experience stress in a greenhouse or nursery, as the growers are giving them everything that they should need to thrive, including plenty of water and nutrients.  Most ornamental plants will show some additional growth as well as improved root structure and plant habit when inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, even within the short turnaround time that greenhouse or nursery growers will have their plants in production.  However, when comparing mycorrhizal treated plants with non-treated controls in the greenhouse, these differences may not always look like they will impact the bottom-line.  But, as soon as these treated plants leave the grower, this is where the benefits of mycorrhizal inoculation really begin to shine, and these benefits positively reflect back to the grower.

Increase Plant Resilience in Transport and Retail:

Ornamental plants are delicate beauties.  They are babied from the time of propagation, and ideally, are provided with the perfect environment to optimize growth and development.  Before heading out into the world for retail sale or landscape installation, they will certainly be watered to prepare for the journey, but this may be the last water they see until reaching their destination.  The stress of being packed into a dark truck on crowded racks, with the potential for extreme heat or cold and little or no air movement, may be their first shock and can have an impact on how they look on the retail shelf.

Then, once they make it to the garden center, box store, etc., they are handed off to a new situation and staff who may or may not be capable of continuing to providing those ideal conditions that the plants had become accustomed to.  The heat and drought of a retail situation can cause a good deal of plant wilt, blossom and foliage damage, and even mortality, making them less and less likely to be chosen by a homeowner or landscaper off the shelf.  This is where the inoculated plants really start to stand out, as they are more resilient and will resist wilt for 24-48 hours longer than untreated plants, and will recover from wilt much more quickly once the staff gets the chance to make the rounds.  This means higher sell-through for “pay by scan” growers, and fewer dumped or discounted plants, which is a good thing for everyone in the pipeline.  For the grower retailer, mycorrhizal inoculation means that your plants will look better in the shop, survive longer on the shelf, and ultimately improve the customer experience with your brand, as end-users will experience less transplant shock, less mortality, and greater overall success and satisfaction with your mycorrhizae inoculated plants.  Also, any retailer that has a plant guarantee will see less loss at transplant and fewer returned plants, which reduces the costs for the retailer and grower of guaranteed plants.

Benefits to Home Gardeners and Landscapers:

The benefits of mycorrhizal fungi to plant resilience, longevity, vitality, and overall performance are passed along from the grower to the end-user, whether it happens to be a home gardener or landscaper.  Home gardeners, especially inexperienced “casual” gardeners, will have more success in the garden with less effort, leading to return trips to the retailer and additional purchases.  And this is good for the grower and retailer as well, because when home gardeners have success, they will likely return to that same nursery or retailer for more of those “good” plants that they had so much success with.  The same concept applies to landscape professionals, who will certainly return to the source of those resilient, hearty plants that they only had to plant once, rather than having to return to a site to replace plants that didn’t successfully take root and survive in outplanting.  Plus, the landscaper’s customers will be happier, as their plants will be more sustainable, lower maintenance, and require fewer inputs such as water and nutrients to survive and thrive.

How Soon Will You See the Benefits?

The general benchmark is that it may take as long as 8 weeks to see a visible difference between mycorrhizal inoculated plants and untreated control plants, however, this varies quite a bit from species to species, with some plants showing significant differences as soon as 2-3 weeks after treatment.  As a plant producer, you will see bigger benefits of mycorrhizal inoculation if you also reduce your nutrient inputs when inoculating with mycorrhizal fungi.  This not only offers the immediate benefit of offsetting some of the costs of the mycorrhizal product, but it also leads to quicker and more effective colonization of the root zone, since plants who are over-fertilized will send out fewer root exudates to trigger the germination of the mycorrhizal propagules.  We recommend cutting back on fertilizer by around 30-40% when inoculating with mycorrhizal products like MycoApply, in order to maximize the return on investment, and reap the full rewards of the symbiosis.

Also, the earlier in the plant’s life cycle that you can inoculate the roots, the better.  If the grower can include mycorrhizal inoculants in the growing media at plug stage, or drench the propagation trays in a mycorrhizal slurry, this is the most cost-effective method, and can provide the plant with this symbiotic support for the rest of its life.  The basic guideline is this: the smaller the plant at the time of inoculation, the less product you will need to achieve mycorrhizal colonization.  Simple, right?  When inoculating at propagation stage, the cost can be as low as $0.03 to $0.04 cents per plug tray!

For a landscaper, or a retailer who does landscape installation, inoculation at plug stage may not be possible, however, these products work very well in transplanting as well.  Mycorrhizal Applications offers MycoApply products in powder formulations (such as MycoApply Ultrafine Endo), which can be drenched or applied directly as a powder to root balls during transplant, as well as granular formulations (such as MycoApply Endo), which can be applied around the exposed roots and incorporated into transplant backfill.  No matter the stage of the plant’s lifecycle, any time you can get the mycorrhizal propagules into contact with the growing roots, you can kick-off the symbiotic colonization process.

Where can I find these products and learn more about how to use them?

MycoApply professional mycorrhizal inoculants are available through many nationwide distributors.  The best way to determine where you can get your hands on some to try in your own greenhouse or nursery is to contact Mycorrhizal Applications, who can then point you towards a distributor in your region.  Their information is available online at www.mycorrhizae.com, or you can reach one of their helpful, friendly, and passionate sales staff by calling (541) 476-3985 or emailing inquiries@mycorrhizae.com.  They also have access to a library of research and resources about how to utilize this technology, so feel free to reach out with any mycorrhizal questions that could help you maximize your success.

© 2017, by Mycorrhizal Applications LLC


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Actinovate Biological Fungicides – A Powerful and Versatile Tool

Actinovate biological fungicides offer growers and home gardeners a very powerful and versatile Organic (OMRI Listed) tool to control fungal pathogens.  Actinovate works just like other biological controls (the classic example of a biological control is the use of ladybugs to control aphids), only the organisms in Actinovate act on a microscopic level.  Actinovate uses a natural enemy of fungal pathogens to keep these pathogens from destroying your crops.  This natural enemy is a beneficial bacteria called Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108, which is a naturally occurring soil bacterium that was originally isolated from the roots of a linseed plant in England, and patented worldwide.  Actinovate is effective and versatile, utilized both indoors and outdoors, in markets including greenhouse, nursery, landscaping, turf, and homeowners.

How does Actinovate protect against fungal pathogens?

Actinovate can be utilized to combat fungal soil diseases, as well as foliar diseases.  The organism within Actinovate colonizes plant structures in a beneficial symbiotic manner, when introduced into the root zone or applied to foliage.  The Streptomyces lydicus spores germinate and form a mutually beneficial relationship within the rhizosphere of plants by feeding off the plant’s waste and secreting beneficial byproducts, such as Chitinase to break down fungal walls, byproducts that kill or repel other microbes, and iron carriers to starve competing microbes.  Essentially, the S. lydicus feeds off the root’s secretions, and discharges toxins that keep other microbes (including pathogens) out.  This assortment of byproducts and toxins discharged by S. lydicus means that Actinovate utilizes several modes of anti-fungal action to protect plants, lawns, and gardens from pathogens, rather than relying on a single mode of action as many other fungicides do.

What pathogens can Actinovate help control against?

Similar to a probiotic used to keep our own digestive systems in healthy balance, Actinovate works within the root zone microbiome to keep the system healthy and in-balance.  Actinovate can be used on annual and perennial bedding plants and flowers, roses, potted flowers, foliage plants, trees, shrubs, and lawns located in homes, greenhouses, and home landscapes, as well as fruits including tree fruits, berries, and melons, nuts including a wide variety of tree nuts, and vegetables including leafy vegetables, root crops, cole crops, peppers, and tomatoes.

Actinovate’s S. lydicus organism will actively control against several common soil pathogens, such as Damping Off Fungus, Root Rot, Turf Brown Patch, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora, Fusarium, Verticillium, Sclerotinia, and many others.

In foliar applications, Actinovate will suppress Downy Mildew, Gray Mold, Powdery Mildew, Botrytus, Phytomatotricum, Sclerotinia, Alternaria, and more.

When should Actinovate be applied?

As with most biological controls, it is best to use Actinovate as a preventative tool, rather than curative treatment.  For best results, apply Actinovate as early as possible to the plant’s root system, and reapply every 2-12 weeks as needed.  In foliar applications, it is best to apply prior to disease development, or at the first signs of pathogen infection, and repeat at 7-14 day intervals to protect new foliage.

Actinovate is relatively safe when compared with many other fungicides, though caution is advised when using any pesticide.  Please read the label thoroughly for all precautionary statements and PPE requirements.  When sprayed onto foliage or used in chemigation via sprinkler or other spray irrigation, the re-entry period is only one hour, or once the solution has dried.  Actinovate can be applied up to and including the day of harvest, so the pre-harvest interval is not a concern.  Always clean application equipment prior to use of this product, and use the prepared Actinovate solution within 4 hours of preparation.

How can Growers and Gardeners apply Actinovate?

Actinovate is a soluble powder which can be added to water to create a solution and then applied to the plant’s root zone or foliage using the applications below.

For rhizosphere, or root-zone applications, the soil drench should contain 4-6 ounces of Actinovate per 100 gallons of water (1 teaspoon per 2 gallons of water for smaller quantities).  This solution can be watered into damp soils, applied to pots, base of plants, root balls, or applied to the root zone by watering the substrate with Actinovate solution until the soil is completely saturated without creating runoff (generally 1 gallon of solution per cubic foot of substrate).  In greenhouses and nurseries, Actinovate can be applied to the root zone via drip or flood chemigation using the rate of 1-12 ounces of Actinovate per 10-200 gallons of water, depending on desired application.  For soil chemigation, apply the solution only through pressurized drench (flood) or drip (trickle) systems, micro irrigation such as spaghetti tube or individual tube irrigation, hand-held calibrated irrigation equipment such as hand-held wand with injector, or ebb and flow systems.

For foliar applications, dissolve 6-12 ounces of Actinovate into 50-100 gallons of water.  Growers or gardeners can use a pump bottle, hand-held pump, backpack, or similar spray equipment to spray leaves, stems, and new shoots to wet, but not quite to run-off, providing complete coverage of the entire plant.  In greenhouses and nurseries, Actinovate can be applied to the foliage via chemigation using the rate of 1-12 ounces of Actinovate per 10-200 gallons of water, depending on desired application.  For foliar chemigation, apply the solution only through overhead boom and mist-type systems or sprinklers such as impact or micro-sprinklers.  For best results in foliar applications, use a non-ionic spreader-sticker in conjunction with Actinovate application.

Always refer to product label for complete instructions, precautions, safety, and storage and handling before use.

Can Actinovate be part of an IPM program?

Actinovate is a great addition to any Integrated Pest Management program, and can be used safely and effectively alongside beneficial fungi, such as mycorrhizal inoculant products.  Actinovate can also be used safely and effectively alongside a rotation of traditional fungicides.  Also, Actinovate does not need to be rotated, and can be used year-after-year, season-after-season, as unlike other fungicides, there are no pathogen resistance issues caused by prolonged or repeated use of biological solutions such as S. lydicus.  Actinovate is OMRI-Listed as an organic input, therefore, it is a great resource for organic growers and gardeners for organic control of fungal pathogens.  Additionally, Actinovate is Pollinator Safe, as trials have shown that exposure to Actinovate had no adverse effects on honeybees.

What Actinovate products are available for Professional Growers and Home Gardeners?

Actinovate is a proven technology that has been utilized by growers, farmers, landscapers, turf managers, and home gardeners with confirmed success for many years.  Professional growers, turf managers, and landscapers can utilize Actinovate SP for nursery and greenhouse applications.  Actinovate SP is available in 18 oz. packages, and has a 6-month shelf life.  Home Gardeners and Lawn and Garden professionals can utilize Actinovate Lawn and Garden, which is available in 18 oz. packages, 2 oz. packages, and 0.7 oz. packages, and also has a shelf life of 6 months.

Where can I find these products and learn more about how to use them?

These Actinovate biological fungicides for Professional Growers and Home Gardeners are available through distributors in the US and Canada.  The best way to determine where you can get your hands on Actinovate SP or Actinovate Lawn and Garden to try in your own greenhouse or nursery, or home lawn and garden, is to contact your local distributor.  If you have problems locating a distributor or need further information, contact Mycorrhizal Applications, who can point you towards a distributor in your region.  Their information is available online at www.mycorrhizae.com, or you can reach the Mycorrhizal Applications sales staff by calling (541) 476-3985 or emailing inquiries@mycorrhizae.com.

© 2017, by Mycorrhizal Applications LLC